Opernhaus Zuerich, Zuerich (das Opernarchiv) Translate this page L' Italiana in Algeri Gioachino Rossini, theodor Guschlbauer, Michael Hampe Jens-DanielHerzog, Bernhard Kleber Joanna Kozlowska, Stefania kaluza, Irène Friedli http://www.opernarchiv.net/Opernhaus_Zuerich/
Extractions: The Official String Theory Web Site History before 1800 / 1900 until today) Max Planck makes his quantum hypothesis that energy is carried by indistinguishable units called quanta , rather than flowing in a pure continuum. This hypothesis leads to a successful derivation of the black body radiation law, now called Planck's Law, although in 1901 the quantum hypothesis as yet had no experimental support. The unit of quantum action is now called Planck's constant. Swiss patent clerk Albert Einstein proposes Planck's quantum hypothesis as the physics underlying the photoelectric effect. Planck wins the Nobel Prize in 1918, and Einstein in 1921, for developing quantum theory, one of the two most important developments in 20th century physics. Einstein publishes his simple, elegant Special Theory of Relativity, making mincemeat of his competition by relying on only two ideas: 1. The laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames, and 2. The speed of light is the same for all inertial observers. Minkowski publishes Raum und Zeit (Space and Time), and establishes the idea of a spacetime continuum
A Few Photos Richard Feynman (circa 1963). Richard Feynman (circa 1965). Murray GellMann(1967). theodor kaluza (circa 1940). Oskar Klein (circa 1950). http://server.physics.miami.edu/~curtright/4photos.html
Gunnar Nordström Symposium - Main Page Later, after the war, the idea of unification in extra dimensions was again discoveredindependently and popularized by theodor kaluza and Oskar Klein, and http://www.physics.helsinki.fi/~tfo_www/nordstrom/
Extractions: [Main Page] Announcements Registration Program Speakers This is the first symposium to celebrate Gunnar Nordström and his intellectual heritage. The symposium welcomes physicists from all over the world to discuss exciting new theoretical and experimental developments in topics related to gravity, string theory, novel models of cosmology and physics with higher dimensions. Many of the talks in the symposium will be from invited speakers, but time has also been planned for talks by participants. The participants are encouraged to submit abstracts. Gunnar Nordström (1881-1923) Gunnar Nordström is without doubt one of the most famous and original Finnish physicists. Nordström played an important role in the development of general theory of relativity, in part in correspondence and in part in competition with Einstein . He developed a scalar theory of gravity which Einstein himself initially considered as a serious rival of his general theory of relativity. Later when it became apparent that Nature had not chosen Nordström's theory, he become one of the earliest supporters of Einstein's theory.
MPQ Homepage: Staff Translate this page H, (+ 49 89) 3 29 05 -, Hänsch, theodor W. Prof. -702, theodor.Haensch. K, (+ 4989) 3 29 05 -, Kaiser, Werner, -132, Werner.Kaiser. kaluza, Malte, -726, Malte.kaluza. http://www.mpq.mpg.de/mpq-staff/staff-home.html
Extractions: List of MPQ-Staff / Liste der MPQ-Mitarbeiter A B C D ... List of non-resident MPQ-Staff / Liste der externen MPQ-Mitarbeiter Name Phone / Telefon E-Mail (Firstname.email@example.com) A Alvarez Diez, Cristina Cristina.Alvarez B Baier, Thomas Thomas.Baier Bayerl, Josef Josef.Bayerl Bohm, Brigitte Brigitte.Bohm Bourennane, Mohamed Dr. M.Bourennane Brandl, Georg Georg.Brandl Helmut.Brueckner Buckup, Tiago Tiago.Buckup C Cirac, Ignacio Prof. Ignacio.Cirac Cubitt, Toby Toby.Cubitt D Demeter, Franz Franz.Demeter Dreher, Matthias Matthias.Dreher Dr. Stephan.Duerr E Eckle, Petrissa Petrissa.Eckle Eibl, Manfred Manfred.Eibl Eichenseer, Mario Mario.Eichenseer Eidmann, Klaus Dr. Klaus.Eidmann Ernst, Sebastian Sebastian.Ernst Eusepi, Francesco Francesco.Eusepi F Fendel, Peter Peter.Fendel Figger, Hartmut Dr. Hartmut.Figger Fill, Ernst Dr. Ernst.Fill Fischer, Marc Marc.Fischer Forster, Klaus -141 or
A Conversation With Physicist Brian Greene times during the 19th century, the first serious proponent of its existence inthe 20th century was an unknown Prussian mathematician named theodor kaluza. http://tap3x.net/EMBTI/j6greene.html
Extractions: The Elegant Universe: Superstrings, Hidden Dimensions, and the Quest for the Ultimate Theory After his talk, I engaged Brian in a conversation on what appeared to me to be an interesting resemblence between how he seemed to be approaching the structure of reality and what some of us want to say about the structure of consciousness. It is on this conversation that I wish to report in this piece. skip to In our recent series Pat and I discussed the role that the mandala, as symbol of a profound organizing principle, plays in personality typologies. This required us to articulate our views on the structure of consciousness itself. If the mandala is structured in such a way that its 'outermost' rim must be conceived as identical to its 'innermost' center, we argued, this is because consciousness is similarly structured. If conceived as a series of ever-wider experiential contexts, nested one within the other like a set of Chinese boxes, consciousness can be thought of as wrapping back around on itself in such a way that the outermost 'context' is indistinguishable from the innermost 'content' - a structure for which we coined the term 'liminocentric'. As attention expands its focus to include more and more of the margin or 'fringe' of consciousness, awareness becomes increasingly diffuse and undifferentiated. The same mental state, which occurs at both extremes, is a highly significant state in meditation practice, repeatedly singled out for special consideration by mystics in various traditions.
Gevangen In Een Vliegend Tapijt theodor kaluza en Oskar Klein zagen onafhankelijk van elkaar dat Einsteinsvergelijkingen in vijf dimensies tegelijkertijd de zwaartekracht en het http://turing.wins.uva.nl/~rhd/tapijt.html
Extractions: Gevangen in een vliegend tapijt Robbert Dijkgraaf Sinds kort is een aantal natuurkundigen in de ban van het idee dat onze wereld behalve lengte, breedte en hoogte extra dimensies telt die groot genoeg zijn om zichtbaar te worden. Op reis in de hyperruimte. Hoe is dit mogelijk? Waarom zien we deze grote extra dimensies niet met het blote oog? Het mysterie zit verborgen in de eigenschappen van de zwaartekracht, een verschijnsel dat ondanks het werk van Newton en Einstein nog steeds slecht begrepen is, en dat verrassend genoeg ook heel slecht gemeten is. Zo weten we op dit moment niet of de wet van Newton wel geldt op een afstand van een millimeter. Het is niet moeilijk om onszelf te overtuigen dat we in drie dimensies leven. Iedere doe-het-zelver weet dat alles nu eenmaal een lengte, een breedte en een hoogte heeft. Dit simpele gegeven vormt de verklaring van veel natuurverschijnselen, bijvoorbeeld van Newtons befaamde wet die stelt dat de zwaartekracht afneemt met het kwadraat van de afstand tussen twee massa's. Als de afstand twee keer zo groot gemaakt wordt, dan wordt de zwaartekracht viermaal zo zwak. Maar dit is alleen waar in drie dimensies. Als we een vierde dimensie zouden toevoegen zou Newton voorspeld hebben dat de kracht achtmaal zo zwak zou worden. Nu is een vierde dimensie geen onbekend verschijnsel in de moderne fysica. Het was Time magazine's 'man van de eeuw' Albert Einstein die met hulp van de wiskundige Hermann Minkowski inzag dat de tijd als een min of meer gelijkwaardige dimensie mag worden toegevoegd. Hoewel wij in de praktijk niet snel ruimte en tijd door elkaar zullen halen, is dat voor een elementair deeltje dat zich bijna zo snel als het licht voortbeweegt heel anders. Volgens Einsteins algemene relativiteitstheorie van 1915 moet de zwaartekracht dan ook begrepen worden in termen van een vierdimensionale ruimtetijd.
Hyperspheres, Hyperspace, And The Fourth Spatial Dimension Series of essays introducing a fourth spatial dimension into the standard big bang model of the universe.Category Science Anomalies and Alternative Science Cosmology dimensional space received the largest impetus in the early 20th century througha brilliant insight of an unknown Prussian mathematician named theodor kaluza. http://www.bright.net/~mrf/
Extractions: Is space curved? The three well known Friedmann models provide one way to answer the question about curvature whether space in the universe is curved or not depends on the density (so much matter per unit volume). If the density is equal to a certain critical value - equivalent to one or two hydrogen atoms per cubic meter - there is no curvature the three spatial dimensions we clearly recognize remain orthogonal at all eras this is the Euclidean "flat" model.
Week116 It also contains theodor kaluza's 1921 paper On the Unification Problem of Physics and Oskar Klein's 1926 paper Quantum Theory and FiveDimensional http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/week116.html
Extractions: While general relativity and the Standard Model of particle physics are very different in many ways, they have one important thing in common: both are gauge theories. I will not attempt to explain what a gauge theory is here. I just want to recommend the following nice book on the early history of this subject: 1) Lochlainn O'Raifeartaigh, The Dawning of Gauge Theory, Princeton U. Press, Princeton, 1997. This contains the most important early papers on the subject, translated into English, together with detailed and extremely intelligent commentary. It starts with Hermann Weyl's 1918 paper "Gravitation and Electricity", in which he proposed a unification of gravity and electromagnetism. This theory was proven wrong by Einstein in a one-paragraph remark which appears at the end of Weyl's paper - Einstein noticed it would predict atoms of variable size! - but it highlighted the common features of general relativity and Maxwell's equations, which were later generalized to obtain the modern concept of gauge theory. It also contains Theodor Kaluza's 1921 paper "On the Unification Problem of Physics" and Oskar Klein's 1926 paper "Quantum Theory and Five-Dimensional Relativity". These began the trend, currently very popular in string theory, of trying to unify forces by postulating additional dimensions of spacetime. It's interesting how gauge theory has historical roots in this seemingly more exotic notion. The original Kaluza-Klein theory assumed a 5-dimensional spacetime, with the extra dimension curled into a small circle. Starting with 5-dimensional general relativity, and using the U(1) symmetry of the circle, they recovered 4-dimensional general relativity coupled to a U(1) gauge theory - namely, Maxwell's equations. Unfortunately, their theory also predicted an unobserved spin-0 particle, which was especially problematic back in the days before mesons were discovered.
Nature Publishing Group time dimensions that we observe (three space and one time) could be supplementedby extra dimensions was first put forward by theodor kaluza and subsequently http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v404/n6773/full/
11.html võib olla rohkem kui 3 ruumimõõdet, esitasid juba viiskümmend aastat enne superstringiteooriat,st 1920ndatel, poola füüsik theodor kaluza ja rootsi http://hot.ee/osakesed/11.html
Oxbow Final Research Paper The idea of extra dimensions first appeared in 1919, introduced byGerman mathematician theodor kaluza. Swedish physicist Oscar http://188.8.131.52:8080/thelegendary/2002/11/18
Extractions: An explanation of Reality. Very rarely will a scientist make a discovery that turns our perception of reality on its head. Over time, those findings become another fact that we just accept when we place our faith in science. Matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms, and our planet is only one in a vast sea of galaxies, fantastically large. These revelations, when first conceived, were widely controversial, many years passing before they became popular belief. Possibly the most pressing issue in modern physics in the unification of the microcosm and the macrocosm - quantum mechanics and astrophysics, respectively. The superstring theory stands as the most cogent theory for unification today. The ideas associated with this theory, though commonplace in cosmology, may seem obscure and even fallacious to the layman. Because of their complex, innovative nature, superstring theory's concepts force us to question our assumptions of even the most ordinary universal laws. In 1968, Italian physicist Gabriele Veneziano, with the help of others, came up with what was called the "string theory." The basic notion: the simplest geometric unit is a tiny, elongated string, rather than a point. Thus, elementary particles, the substance which makes up all matter, rather than points, are strings that vibrate. The resonance, or frequency of this vibration, dictate the mass of the particle, and the force carried. This conversion works because the vibration releases energy, which given the stipulations of special relativity can be converted to mass, and mass directly relates to one of the four forces of nature, gravity. The resonance of the string is determined by the geometry of the extra dimensions in which the vibration occurs (Moring, 252).
Namen - K Translate this page 1913), »Die Verwandlung« (1915), »Der Prozeß« (1925), »Das Schloß« (1926)Kalmus, Hans () - Forscher Biologie (?) kaluza, theodor (1885-1954) - poln. http://homepages.compuserve.de/abswer/namen/namen_k.htm
Text7 The existence of extra curledup dimensions was theoretically demonstrated in 1919by the Polish mathematician theodor kaluza who combined general relativity http://www.scientific-religious.com/text7.html
Extractions: VII. The Uncertainty Principle The uncertainty of the position of an electron at a certain time will depend on the forces that bind it to the nucleus and on the influence of other electrons in the atom. These conditions determine a "probability pattern" which represents the electron's tendency to be in various areas of the atom at different times. Mathematically this is represented by the wave probability function, a quantity that is related to the probability of finding the electron in various places at various times. The quantity of the probability is calculated by the "wave equation", the fundamental equation of quantum physics formulated by the Austrian physicist and Nobel laureate Erwin Schrödinger in 1926. (The symbol for the wave probability function is the Greek letter psi , the first symbol of the equation on the home page of this site.) The actualization of a specific property of an electron by the act of observation, i.e., the transformation of a certain feature from potential to real, produces the collapse of the wave probability function. A good example is the classical case of a tree that falls in a forest. Will it make a sound if no one is there to hear it? The answer is that, when it hits the ground, it will generate sound waves but not sound 'per se'. The waves will become sound (by definition) only when they are 'heard' and for this to occur a hearing device - an ear - is necessary. It is the ear that turns sound waves into sound as it is the eye that turns light waves into vision. Mathematically speaking, the wave probability function (psi) collapses only when the latter occurs.
New Scientist Planet Science: Five And Counting... The idea of a fifth dimension is not new. It arose out of work by two Germanmathematicians, theodor kaluza and Oskar Klein, in the 1920s. http://pvanhove.home.cern.ch/pvanhove/PopularScience/NewScientist/fifth.html
Extractions: says Marcus Chown GeV Length Significance Electroweak electromag-weak GUT color-electroweak String GUT-gravity Planck grav=other forces IT'S DECEMBER 2005 and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN near Geneva has just completed its first successful run. In a dimly lit control room deep underground, a computer display comes alive with the colour-coded tracks of two particle events plucked from the quadrillions of others seen by one of the LHC's cathedral-sized detectors. The effect on the assembled physicists, who have worked themselves to the brink of exhaustion over the past weeks, is dramatic. They whoop and cheer and hug each other like long-lost friends. For what they see on the screen is the unmistakable signature of the fifth dimension. If you think this scenario is science fiction, think again. A growing band of physicists believe that the four dimensions of our everyday Universethree of space and one of timeare just the tip of the iceberg. What's more, they say, we may soon be able to see the effects of the fifth dimension. It might even show its hand in the next round of accelerator experimentsa prospect that is enough to make any particle physicist's mouth water. And not only for its own sake. It would be a giant step on the long march to a Theory of Everything, the long-sought theory that will unify the four fundamental forces of physics. If we discovered a fifth dimension, it would be the most important discovery since quantum theory, says Gordon Kane, a theorist from the University of Michigan.
Allround-Computer-Kurs Translate this page Allround-Computer-Kurs. (http//kaluza.physik.uni-konstanz.de/a) Martin Hofmann,Der Pannenhelfer, VNR Verlag für die deutsche Wirtschaft, theodor-Heuss Str. http://kaluza.physik.uni-konstanz.de/a/
Mitglieder Translate this page France kaluza, Dr. Zénon (2002), firstname.lastname@example.org. Great Britain Köhler,Prof. Dr. theodor W. (2002), email@example.com. Polska http://www.st-georgen.uni-frankfurt.de/igtm/Mitglieder.htm
Naturwissenschaftliche Berühmtheiten 1870 Bis 1899 Translate this page Bohrsches Atommodell 1922 Nobelpreis. theodor Franz Eduard kaluza (09.11.1885-19.01.1945).Hermann Weyl (09.11.1885-08.12.1955). Adriaan Fokker (1887-1972). http://cip-lx9.physik.uni-siegen.de/~klose/beruehmt/beruehmt_chrono_1870_1899.ht